MND: How does a 600 calories /day regimen for 8 weeks sound? More like near starving? What if it could get you free of diabetes? Results show that 7 of the 11 participants were diabetes free after the 8 weeks 
Don’t try this without your Doctor’s agreement and supervision!!
Even the authors of this small scale study (11 participants) are not recommending this severe diet as a treatment. They were “merely trying to test the hypotheses that substantial weight loss will get rid of diabetes.” If one reads the article in Diabetologia , one can find the hypothesis :”The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the abnormalities of insulin secretion and insulin resistance that underlie type 2 diabetes have a single, common aetiology, i.e. excess lipid accumulation in the liver and pancreas” So the study on this very restricted diet is a demonstration follow up on the assumptions outlined in a previous work by the same author, R. Taylor : “..ectopic fat deposition in liver and islet underlies the related dynamic defects of hepatic insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction”
In plain English, fat deposited in the liver and pancreas would causes diabetes. So going on a fully non fat diet would be expected to help diabetes , which the low calorie study is purported to have shown.
1) It seems that the enemy here is fat, so why is the diet called just called low calories? As explains beautifully in goaskalice.com from Columbia university: Calories from carbs => glycogen and fatty acids stored in the liver. Eventually the fatty acids become fat.
Redorbit.com  connects the study by R. Taylor to other Dutch studies showing bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery involve surgically reducing the size of the stomach. The Dutch research claim curing diabetes by that method.
2) Are all type 2 diabetes patients obese? The diabetes type 2 entry in Wikipedia  asserts that 55% of such patients are indeed obese. that leaves 45% that are not. However the study by Talor  seems to have included non obese diabetics..
3) The study in  had diabetic participants with a disease diagnosis of less than 4 years. Also the study advise to track if the “cure” is long term
Talk to your Doctor
 WebMD ; July 24, 2011
 Diabetologia; “Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol” ; DOI 10.1007/s00125-011-2204-7
 Mendeley; “Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes: tracing the reverse route from cure to cause”, R. Taylor , 2008
 goaskalice.com, February 21, 1997
by R Taylor
 redorbit.com; June 25, 2011
 Wikipedia, diabetes type II